# Alkenes from aldehydes and ketones - Wittig reaction (2023)

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IsWittig reactiono The Wittig olefination is a chemical reaction of an aldehyde or ketone with a triphenylphosphonium ylide (often referred to asde Wittig reagent) to an alkene oxide and triphenylphosphine.

The Wittig reaction was discovered by Georg Wittig in 1954, for which he received the 1979 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. It is often used in organic synthesis to produce alkenes. Not to be confused with the Wittig rearrangement.

Wittig reactions are most commonly used to couple aldehydes and ketones to substituted phosphine ylides. In the case of unstabilized ylides, the product Z-alkene is formed almost exclusively. To obtain the E-alkene, stabilized ylides are used or unstabilized ylides can be prepared using Schlosser's modification of the Wittig reaction.

## reaction mechanism

### classic mechanism

The steric bulk of Ylrid1affects the stereochemical outcome of nucleophilic addition to give betaine dominance3(cf. Bürgi-Dunitz angle). Note that for betaine3Ambo R1and R.S2just as PPh3+ and O− face each other.

(Video) Wittig Reaction Mechanism

Twisting of the carbon-carbon bond gives betaine4, which then forms oxaphosphethane5. Elimination gives the desired Z-alkene7ist Triphenylphosphin Oxid6. Using simple Wittig reagents, the first step is easily accomplished with aldehydes and ketones and betaine decomposition (to form5) is the rate-determining step. With stabilized ylides (where R1stabilizes the negative charge), the first step is the slowest, hence the overall rate of alkene formation slows and a larger fraction of the alkene product is the E-isomer. This also explains why stabilized reactants with negative charge do not react well. sterically hindered ketones.

### Mechanism

Mechanistic studies have focused on unstabilized ylides since intermediates can be followed by NMR spectroscopy. The existence and transformation of betaine (3aj3b) is the subject of ongoing research. phosphonium ylides1react with carbonyl compounds2via a π²s/π²a [2+2] cycloaddition to form oxaphosphethanes directly4aj4b. The stereochemistry of the product.5is due to the addition of the ylide1to carbonyl2and the balance of mediators. Maryanoff and Reitz identified the problem of equilibration of Wittig intermediates and called the process "stereochemical shift". For many years it was assumed that the stereochemistry of the Wittig reaction in terms of carbon–carbon bond formation corresponds directly to the Z/E stereochemistry of the alkene products. However, some reagents do not follow this simple pattern. Lithium salts can also strongly influence the stereochemical result.

The mechanisms differ for aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes and for aromatic and aliphatic phosphonium ylides. There is evidence that the Wittig reaction of linear aldehydes does not equilibrate under lithium salt-free conditions and is therefore under the control of reaction kinetics. Vedejs presented a theory to explain the stereoselectivity of stabilized and unstabilized Wittig reactions.

## Wittig reagents

### Production of phosphorus ylide

Wittig reagents are usually made from a phosphonium salt, which in turn is made by quaternizing triphenylphosphine with an alkyl halide. The alkyl phosphonium salt is reacted with a strong base such as e.gNorte-Butyllithium:

[Ph3PAG+CH2R]X+C4H9Li → Ph3P = CHR + LiX + C4H10

One of the simplest ylides is methylenetriphenylphosphorane (Ph3P=CH2). It is also a precursor to more sophisticated Wittig reagents. Ph rent3P=CH2with a primary alkyl halide R-CH2−X, generates substituted phosphonium salts:

PH value3P=CH2+RCH2X → Ph3PAG+CH2CH2Reception

These salts can be deprotonated to Ph in the usual way3P=CH-CH2R

(Video) The Wittig Reaction to Make Alkenes from Aldehydes and Ketones

### iluro-Struktur

Ph-Ball-and-Stick-Modell3P=CH2, as found in the crystal structure

Wittig's reagent can be described inPhosphoranoForm (the most famous representation) or theylidaform:

(Video) Wittig Reaction Aldehyde or Ketone Reacting with Phosphorus Ylide to make an Alkene

The ylide form is a major contributor and the carbon is nucleophilic.

### reactivity

Simple phosphoranes are reactive. Most are easily hydrolyzed and oxidized. Therefore, they are manufactured using the airless process. Phosphoranes are most stable in air when they contain an electron withdrawing group. Some examples are Ph.3P=CHCO2Ry Ph3P=CHPh. These ylides are strong enough to be sold commercially.

These reagents are more readily formed from phosphonium salts, require only NaOH, and are generally more stable in air. These are less reactive than simple ylides and thus generally do not react with ketones, necessitating the use of the Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction as an alternative. They usually give an E alkene product when they react, rather than the more common Z alkene.

## Scope and Restrictions

The Wittig reaction is a popular method for synthesizing alkenes from ketones and aldehydes. Wittig's reagent can generally tolerate carbonyl compounds containing different types of functional groups such as OH, OR, aromatic nitro and even ester groups. There can be a problem with sterically hindered ketones, where the reaction can be slow and give low yields, particularly with stabilized ylides, and in these cases the Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons (HWE) reaction (using phosphonate esters) is preferred. Another reported limitation is the often labile nature of aldehydes, which can be oxidized, polymerized, or decomposed. The aldehyde is formed in the so-called tandem Wittig oxidationEUin situ by oxidation of the corresponding alcohol.

As mentioned above, the Wittig reagent itself is usually derived from a primary alkyl halide. Quaternization of triphenylphosphine with most secondary halides is ineffective. For this reason, Wittig's reagents are rarely used to prepare tetrasubstituted alkenes. However, the Wittig reagent can tolerate many other variants. It can contain alkenes and aromatic rings and is compatible with ethers and even ester groups. Even C=O and nitrile groups can be present when conjugated to the ylide; these are the stabilized ylides mentioned above. Bis-ylides (with two P=C bonds) have also been prepared and used successfully.

One limitation relates to the stereochemistry of the product. For simple ylides, the product is mostly the Z isomer, although a minor amount of the E isomer is often formed as well; this is especially true when using ketones. When the reaction is carried out in DMF in the presence of LiI or NaI, the product is almost exclusively isomer Z. When isomer E is the desired product, the Schlosser modification can be used. With stabilized ylides, the product is mainly the E isomer, and the same isomer is also common in the HWE reaction.

### locksmith modification

The main limitation of the traditional Wittig reaction is that the reaction proceeds mainly via the intermediate erythrobetaine leading to the Z-alkene. Erythrobetaine can be converted to threobetaine using phenyllithium at low temperature. This modification produces E-alkene.

Allyl alcohols can be made by reacting betaine ylide with a second aldehyde. For example:

(Video) 19.7b Wittig Reaction

## examples

Because of its reliability and broad applicability, the Wittig reaction has become a standard tool for synthetic organic chemists.

The most well-known application of the Wittig reaction is the introduction of a methylene group with methylenetriphenylphosphorane (Ph3P=CH2). Even a sterically hindered ketone such as camphor can be converted into its methylene derivative with this reagent. In this case, Wittig's reagent is madeno placeby deprotonation of methyltriphenylphosphonium bromide with potassium tert-butoxide. In another example, phosphorane is prepared using sodium amide as the base and this reagent converts the aldehyde shown to an alkene.EUwith a yield of 62%. The reaction is carried out in cold THF and the sensitive nitro, azo, and phenoxide groups are tolerated. The product can be used to incorporate a light stabilizer into a polymer to protect the polymer from damage caused by UV radiation.

Another example of its use is in the synthesis of leukotriene-A methyl ester. The first step uses a stabilized ylide with the carbonyl group conjugated to the ylide, preventing self-condensation, although unexpectedly this mainly provides thatcisProducts. The second Wittig reaction uses an unstabilized Wittig reagent and, as expected, gives mainly thecisProducts. Note that the epoxy and ester functional groups survive intact.

(Video) Wittig Reaction Aldehyde or Ketone Reacting with Phosphorus Ylide to make an Alkene

Methoxymethylenetriphenylphosphine is a Wittig reagent for the homologation of aldehydes.

## FAQs

### How is alkene prepared by Wittig reaction? ›

What is a Wittig's Reaction? Wittig reaction is an organic chemical reaction wherein an aldehyde or a ketone is reacted with a Wittig Reagent (a triphenyl phosphonium ylide) to yield an alkene along with triphenylphosphine oxide. This Reaction is named after its discoverer, the German chemist Georg Wittig.

How do you turn a ketone into an alkene? ›

Ketones are converted to alkenes accompanied by carbon-carbon bond formation through the Wittig reaction. Alternatively, this same transformation can be accomplished through the addition of a Grignard reagent to the ketone followed by dehydration of the resulting alcohol.

How do you go from aldehyde to alkene? ›

Alkenes can be Cleaved using Ozone (O3) to form Aldehydes and/or Ketones (Section 8.8) Ozonolysis is a method of oxidatively cleaving alkenes or alkynes using ozone (O3), a reactive allotrope of oxygen. The process allows for carbon-carbon double or triple bonds to be replaced by double bonds with oxygen.

What is the byproduct of Wittig reaction? ›

Although, the Wittig reaction has a low atom economy, because triphenylphosphine oxide is formed as byproduct; however, this reaction can be improved in the absence of solvent.

Does Wittig prefer aldehyde or ketone? ›

The Wittig reaction or Wittig olefination is a chemical reaction of an aldehyde or ketone with a triphenyl phosphonium ylide called a Wittig reagent.
...
Wittig reaction
aldehyde or ketone + triphenyl phosphonium ylide ↓ alkene + triphenylphosphine oxide
Conditions
Typical solventstypically THF or diethyl ether
8 more rows

What are the three methods for the preparation of alkenes? ›

Preparations include the dehydration of alcohols, the dehydrohalogenation of alkyl halides, and the dehalogenation of alkanes.

Which functional groups are transformed in Wittig reactions? ›

Wittig reactions are most commonly used to couple aldehydes and ketones to singly substituted phosphine ylides.

How do you convert ketones to alkanes? ›

The reduction of aldehydes and ketones to alkanes. Condensation of the carbonyl compound with hydrazine forms the hydrazone, and treatment with base induces the reduction of the carbon coupled with oxidation of the hydrazine to gaseous nitrogen, to yield the corresponding alkane.

How do you turn an aldehyde into a double bond? ›

Alkenes in which the carbon(s) of the double bond possess one or more hydrogen atoms react with ozone (O 3) to generate aldehydes. The reaction of propene with ozone to form acetaldehyde and formaldehyde illustrates this method of preparation.

How aldehyde and ketones can be obtained from alkene discuss with mechanism? ›

Aldehydes are obtained by the ozonolysis of alkenes. In ozonolysis, first, an alkene reacts with an ozone molecule which results in the formation of ozonide. Then the ozonide so formed reacts with zinc dust and water which results in the formation of either aldehyde or ketone depending on the type of hydrocarbon used.

### What is the conversion reaction of aldehydes and ketones? ›

Converting aldehydes to ketones

You can react aldehydes with Grignard reagents (R2 −MgBr) and perform acidic workup to generate secondary alcohols. Then you can oxidise the alcohol to get a ketone by commonly used oxidising agents like PCC (pyridinium chlorochromate).

What is the conclusion of Wittig reaction? ›

Conclusion: The goal of performing the experiment was to use the Wittig reaction to form a stereoselective alkene. The Wittig reaction enables the formation of alkenes from ketones or aldehydes; in which, a carbon- carbon double bond allows for a stronger organic reaction to occur.

Why must an aldehyde used in a Wittig be free of a carboxylic acids? ›

1) Why is it important that the aldehydes added to the ylide be free of carboxylic acids? (Hint: consider what a proton will do if added to the ylide.) Answer: Because the acidic proton on the carboxylic acid will protonate the negatively charged carbon, destroying the ylide.

What does NaOH do in a Wittig reaction? ›

In the second step, a base, such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or butyl lithium (BuLi), is used to deprotonate and forms the ylide (Wittig reagent). The ylide is used in the Wittig reaction. The ylide then acts as a nucleophile and adds to the carbonyl carbon.

Does Wittig work with ketones? ›

Wittig reactions are most commonly used to couple aldehydes and ketones to singly substituted phosphine ylides.

Which has more priority alkene or aldehyde? ›

The aldehyde takes priority over the alkene (double bond).

What are the conditions for a Wittig reaction? ›

Alpha-halo carbonyl compounds and benzylic halides can form Wittig reagents in the presence of moderate/weak bases. These conditions are compatible with the presence of aldehydes or ketones and therefore can be conducted in a one-pot manner.

What are the two methods of preparation of alkenes? ›

For the preparation of alkenes following two methods are used:
• Dehydration: Industrially prepared.
• Dehydrohalogenation.

What are the two general methods of preparation of alkenes? ›

In order to form trans alkenes, alkynes are made to undergo reduction with sodium in liquid ammonia. From alkyl halides: Alkenes are obtained by heating alkyl halides with alcoholic potash. Alcoholic potash is obtained by dissolving potassium hydroxide in alcohol.

What process is used to make alkenes? ›

Dehydration. One way to synthesize alkenes is by dehydration of alcohols, a process in which alcohols undergo E1 or E2 mechanisms to lose water and form a double bond.

### Does Wolff Kishner work on aldehydes? ›

The Wolff-Kishner reduction is a reaction used to convert carbonyl functionalities, aldehyde and ketone, into methylene groups in organic chemistry.

Why does the aldehyde structure used as the starting material in the Wittig synthesis Cannot have a carboxylic acid group? ›

Answer: Because the acidic proton on the carboxylic acid will protonate the negatively charged carbon, destroying the ylide.

Why do stabilized ylides give E alkenes? ›

Wikipedia says that with unstabilised ylides they react very quickly in step 1-2 and step 4-5 is the rate limiting step. But with stabilised ylides step 1-2 is the rate limiting step and this is why stabilised ylides give E-alkenes.

What reagent is used to convert a ketone to an alkane? ›

The Clemmensen reduction is an organic reaction used to reduce an aldehyde or ketone to an alkane using amalgamated zinc and hydrochloric acid.

Which of the following reagent can convert aldehyde or ketone into alkanes? ›

HCl is used to convert acetone and acetaldehyde to alkanes.

What is the most common method of converting an alkene to an alkane? ›

Introduction. An example of an alkene addition reaction is a process called hydrogenation.In a hydrogenation reaction, two hydrogen atoms are added across the double bond of an alkene, resulting in a saturated alkane.

How do you go from aldehyde to alkyne? ›

Hydroboration-oxidation of alkynes is an indirect hydration reaction in which an alkyne is treated with borane followed by oxidation with alkaline peroxide to form an enol that rapidly converts into an aldehyde or a ketone. Terminal alkynes form aldehydes, whereas internal alkynes give ketones as the final product.

What do aldehydes turn into? ›

It depends on whether the reaction is done under acidic or alkaline conditions. Under acidic conditions, the aldehyde is oxidized to a carboxylic acid. Under alkaline conditions, this couldn't form because it would react with the alkali. A salt is formed instead.

How do you reduce carbonyl to an alkene? ›

The combination of LiBr and Li2CO3 in DMF is a powerful reagent for detosylation to yield alkene. Therefore for the conversion of the ketone into an alkene, a carbonyl group is converted into a tosyl group by reduction and detosylation. The combination of these reagents has been frequently used in our laboratory.

Can aldehydes and ketones form hydrogen bonds? ›

Although the aldehydes and ketones are highly polar molecules, they don't have any hydrogen atoms attached directly to the oxygen, and so they can't hydrogen bond with each other.

### What is the name reaction for aldehyde to alkyne? ›

The Corey–Fuchs reaction, also known as the Ramirez–Corey–Fuchs reaction, is a series of chemical reactions designed to transform an aldehyde into an alkyne.

How do you convert an aldehyde to a hydrocarbon? ›

Wolf-Kishner reduction- Here, aldehydes and ketones are reduced to alkanes using hydrazine. During the mechanism hydrazone anion is formed which then releases the nitrogen atom to form carbanion. This carbanion reacts with water to give a hydrocarbon.

What are the two methods that can be used in the determination of aldehydes or ketones? ›

Identification of aldehydes and ketones is based on two types of reactions, addition reaction to the double bond and oxidation reaction.

What is the conclusion for reactions of aldehydes and ketones? ›

Conclusion. The difference between aldehydes and ketones are the presence of a hydrogen atom attached to the carbon-oxygen double bond in the aldehyde. It is because ketone do not have that hydrogen. The presence of that hydrogen atom makes aldehydes very easy to oxidize and makes it as a strong reducing agent.

How do you separate aldehydes and ketones? ›

By combining the use of a miscible organic solvent with saturated sodium bisulfite, aldehydes and reactive ketones can be successfully transformed into charged bisulfite adducts that can then be separated from other organic components of a mixture by the introduction of an immiscible organic layer.

What are the four chemical reaction of aldehyde and ketones? ›

Hint: Both the aldehyde and ketone group has carbonyl group, i.e., >C=O. group and they give many chemical reactions like Nucleophilic addition reaction, reduction reaction, oxidation reaction, halogenations, and reaction with alkalis.

What are the important reactions from aldehydes and ketones? ›

The carbonyl groups in aldehydes and ketones can be oxidized to form the next “oxidation level” compound-carboxylic acid. Adding water to an aldehyde or ketone produces a product called a hydrate or gemdiol (two OH groups on one carbon). The reaction is catalyzed by acids and bases.

How are alkenes Synthesised? ›

One way to synthesize alkenes is by dehydration of alcohols. Alcohols undergo E1 or E2 mechanisms to lose water and form a double bond. This mechanism is analogous to the alkyl halide mechanism. The only difference is that hydroxide is a very poor leaving group so an extra step is required.

What is Wittig reagent how it is prepared? ›

Wittig reagents are usually prepared from a phosphonium salt, which is in turn prepared by the quaternization of triphenylphosphine with an alkyl halide. The alkylphosphonium salt is deprotonated with a strong base such as n-butyllithium: [Ph3P+CH2R]X + C4H9Li → Ph3P=CHR + LiX + C4H.

Which reaction can be used for synthesis of alkene? ›

Birch reduction can be used for production of alkene from alkyne.

### Which reaction is suitable for the synthesis of alkenes? ›

1 Dehydrohalogenation of Alkyl Halide. The E2 elimination reaction of alkyl halide is one of the most useful method for synthesizing alkene.

What are the 5 types of alkene reactions? ›

Most reactions that occur with alkenes are addition reactions.
...
• Hydrogenation. ...
• Halogenation. ...
• Hydrohalogenation. ...
• Hydration.

What are the two 2 test that can be conducted to differentiate alkane and alkene? ›

Solution : Test with bromine water of "CC"l_(4) <br> Alkenes react with bromine water of "CC"l_(4) to form dibromo alkane, Where as alkanes do not show such reaction. <br> Test with alkaline . KMnO_(4) or Baeyer. s reagent test: <br> Alkenes react with Baeyer.

What is the equation for Wittig reaction? ›

Preparation of Wittig reagents

[Ph3P+CH2R]X + C4H9Li → Ph3P=CHR + LiX + C4H.

Which solvent is best for Wittig reaction? ›

Acetonitrile was generally the best solvent for the reaction (entries 1–3), though non-polar solvents could promote the Wittig reaction once the arsonium salt was formed (entries 4 and 5), consistent with our hypothesis.

What is an example for Wittig reaction? ›

Example. A common Wittig reagent is methylenetriphenylphosphorane (Ph3P=CH2) which is synthesized by reacting Triphenyl phosphine with methylbromide followed by deprotonation with n-butyllithium.

What is the reaction of aldehyde with alkene? ›

The Prins Reaction is the acid-catalyzed addition of aldehydes to alkenes, and gives different products depending on the reaction conditions. It can be thought of conceptually as the addition of the elements of the gem-diol carbonyl hydrate of the aldehyde across the double bond.

Which catalyst is used to produce alkenes? ›

The Catalyst

Catalysts commonly used in alkene hydrogenation are: platinum, palladium, and nickel. The metal catalyst acts as a surface on which the reaction takes place.

What is the difference between Zaitsev and Hoffman? ›

The Zaitsev product is also known as the thermodynamic product, since it is the one that releases the most free energy overall (most negative ΔG°). The Hofmann product is also known as the kinetic product, since it is the one that overcomes the lowest activation energy (Ea).

## Videos

1. Organic Chemistry II- Aldehydes and Ketones: Ylides and The Wittig Reaction
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3. 162 CHM2211 Wittig Reaction of Aldehydes and Ketones
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4. Wittig reaction | preparation of alkenes | reactions of aldehydes and ketones | Class online hy
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5. Wittig & HWE Reactions - Alkene Synthesis (IOC 39)
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6. Chem 51C. Organic Chemistry. Lec. 09: Wittig Reaction
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