Aldol Condensation: General Description, Structure, Properties and Use (2023)

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  • Chemical
  • aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids
  • aldol condensation

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What is aldol condensation?

Aldol depletion occurs in α-hydrogen aldehydes with a mixed base, giving rise to β-hydroxy aldehydes called aldols. This reaction is commonly known as aldol condensation. When a condensation reaction occurs between two different carbonyl chemicals, it is called an aldol condensation cross.

Aldol Condensation Reaction

Aldol condensation reaction:Aldol condensation can be defined as a biological reaction in which ions and a carbonyl compound combine to form β-hydroxyketone or β-hydroxyaldehyde, followed by dehydration to provide a fused enone. Aldol condensation plays an important role in the synthesis of organisms and creates a way to form carbon-carbon bonds.

Mechanism of aldol condensation

Step 1:

The hydroxide ion repeatedly absorbs the aldehyde.

Step 2:

Here, the enolate 1 ion is added to the unadulterated aldehyde.

Stage 3:

Alcoholate 2 ion is expressed in water.

Level 4:

A small amount of aldol is converted to an olate ion (4) via the hydroxide ion.

Step 5:

Here, the enolate ion (4) loses hydroxide ions.

Steps 1 to 3 show the aldol reaction.

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Aldol Condensation Crusade

The condensation reaction between two aldehyde or ketone molecules in protic solvents such as water or alcohol triggers a cross-linked aldol reaction. When the condensate is between two different carbonyl compounds, it is called an aldol condensation cross. If both aldehydes contain alpha hydrogens, both can form carbanions and act as carbanion acceptors. Therefore, a combination of four products was produced with little processing effort.

If one of the aldehydes does not contain an alpha hydrogen, it can only act as a carbanion acceptor. In this case, only two products were made. A typical aldol reaction substrate crosses a scented aldehyde that lacks an alpha position. Furthermore, dehydration of the first condensation product is accelerated, leading to the formation of α, β, an unrefined ketone, and preventing retroaldol formation.

Types of aldol condensation

It is important to distinguish the aldol concentration from the various carbonyl chemical reactions.

In the Perkin reaction, the anolate formed by the anhydride is odorless.

Claisen depletion contains two ester compounds.

Henry's reaction contains aliphatic nitro compound and aldehyde.

Dieckmann depletion consists of 2 ester groups present on the same molecule creating a spinner molecule.

In the Jap-Maitland integration, water is removed by nucleophilic transfer.

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Aldol concentration of cyclohexanone

The frequent aldol ripening of cyclohexanone occurs as an intermolecular aldol condensation.

Carbanion was built as a domestic

It's a nucleophilic reaction to it.

The hydroxide acts as a base.

Dehydration also occurs and a condensation product is formed.

Engine Response:

The cyclohexanone aldol condensation reaction is a clever process.

Step 1: (Carbanion Formation)

In the first step of the aldol reaction of cyclohexanone, the carbanion is formed normally as a normal aldol decrease. The base (hydroxide ion) releases alpha hydrogen to cyclohexanone. This molecule contains two alpha carbons (carbon that occurs next to the active carbon bonding group), so any alpha hydrogen can be released here. Leads to the formation of carbanions. It also addresses enolate carbanion enrichment

Step 2: (attacking the electrophilic center)

In this step, the carbanion formed in the previous step enters the electrophilic center of another cyclohexanone molecule. Therefore, we speak of an intermolecular aldol condensation.

Step 3: (Acidity classification)

Here a small amount of acid is added to convert the oxygen produced into its hydroxy form and the product produced is called an aldol cyclohexanone product.

Step 4: (Dehydration)

The aldol product of cyclohexanone enters the body at high temperatures and forms a condensation product (the water molecule is removed)


Aldol depletion of cyclohexanone is a nucleophilic addition reaction.

Hydroxide ions are used as a base

Contains carbanion intermediates

It is the reduction of the aldol of the cells.

The product produced in this reaction is [1,1'-bi(cyclohexylidene)]-2-one

What is the aldol condensation product of cyclohexanone?

The aldol condensation product of cyclohexanone is [1,1'-Bi(cyclohexylidene)]-2-a

link to related topics,

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Aldol condensation of acetone

Aldol depletion of acetone in the presence of an acid catalyst gives diacetone alcohol (DAA) as an intermediate, which is further dehydrated to give mesityl oxide.

The use of active distillation (DR) can improve selection in the DAA by continuously removing it from the active region and thus suppressing the decompression response. The presence of water in the reaction setup has a significant impact on the internal reaction levels of each reaction. This water restriction effect can be used to promote better selection of intermediates.

The present study shows through experiments and simulations that the introduction of water in the RD can also increase the options directed to AAD. Groups of reaction kinetics in the presence of water are studied and the appropriate kinetic expression is proposed. In addition, batch tests and continuous use of beverages were performed to test feasibility. Test results are defined using a fairness category model and the required performance parameters are determined according to the validated model.

Read too:

  • NCERT Notes Lecture 12 Chemistry Chapter 12 Aldehydes, Ketones, and Carboxylic Acids
  • NCERT Solutions for Chemical Class 12, Chapter 12, Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Exemplary NCERT Chemical Solutions Class 12, Chapter 12, Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

acyloin condensation

Acyloin condensation is a degradative combination of two carboxylic acid esters using sodium metal to produce α-hydroxyketone, also known as acyloin.

The reaction is most effective when R is aliphatic and complete. The reaction is performed in low-boiling aprotic solvents such as benzene and toluene under nitrogen with low oxygen content (since oxygen molecules interfere with the reaction process and reduce yields). The use of solvents leads to the reduction of esters other than the Bouveault-Blanc reduction. Depending on ring size and steric structures, but regardless of high reduction, acetylene inhibition of diesters favors intramolecular rotation over intermolecular polymerization when diesters are used.

To carry out such reactions, it is proposed that the boundaries at which ester groups are present adsorb to adjacent sodium iron sites or are weak.

Therefore, the active tip is not available for polymerization, which reduces the competitiveness of the recycling process. Diesters with 10 or more carbohydrates facilitate smuggling.

Notes on NCERT chemistry:

  • NCERT Grade 11 Chemistry
  • Class 12 NCERT Chemistry Notes
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The acyloin condensation mechanism consists of four steps:

(1) Ionization by oxidation of both sodium atoms within the double bond of both ester molecules.

(2) Free mixing between two molecules of a homolytic ester derivative (Wurtz-type coupling). Alkoxy degradation is possible on both sides, resulting in 1,2-diketone.

(3) Oxidative ionization of two sodium atoms in both diketone bonds. Sodium enediolate is formed.

(4) Neutrality of water for the formation of enediol, which degrades acyloin.

Also check-

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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) - Aldol Condensation - Overview, Reaction, Types, Conclusion, FAQ

Questions:What is the Aldox process?


The Aldox process is a technical variant of an aldol condensation reaction for the direct conversion of syngas and propylene to 2-ethylhexanol. This product is formed by the hydroformylation of the reagent to butyraldehyde, its subsequent aldol absorption into 2-ethylhexenal together with the hydrogenation of this medium to 2-ethylhexenol.

Questions:What is Aldol used for?


The reaction is commonly used to make solvents such as isophoronic alcohol and diacetone. Acts as an intermediary in the manufacture of perfumes. It is also used in the manufacture of medicines.

Questions:What documents can be followed to prepare for Aldol approval?


To learn the Aldol approach, one can follow the NCERT Chemistry Textbook 2 for Grade 12. The chapter titled "Aldehydes, Ketones, and Carboxylic Acids" in this book contains this process.

Questions:Does the chloral reaction lead to an aldol reaction?


Chloral CCl3CHO has no α-hydrogen atom and therefore does not undergo aldol condensation.

Questions:What is aldol condensation?


When aldehydes and ketones contain a single α-hydrogen treated with refined alkali that acts as a catalyst, they form β-hydroxy aldehydes (aldol) and β-hydroxy ketones (ketol), respectively.

And this reaction is called aldol condensation.

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